Atlas of microstructures of solder alloys and solder/metal interfaces. Part 1: Optical Microscopy


List of contents


Atlas of microstructures of solder alloys and solder/metal interfaces. Part 1: Optical Microscopy

Natalia Sobczak, Krystyna Pietrzak, Artur Kudyba, Rafał Nowak, Jerzy Sobczak, Andrzej Wojciechowski

ISBN  978-83-60965-04-07

Year of publication: 2009

Number of pages: 252

Price: 120 EUR


This edition contains the book of collection of microstructures (Atlas) and two CDs.
The Atlas encloses the results of structural characterization of a wide group of lead-free solder candidates and solder joints by means of optical color microscopy. The structural features have been distinguished by applying comparative examination using conventional light, polarized light and phase contrast or using etching in acid solutions.Main attention is focused on the Sn-based alloys as a key family of lead-free solders for microelectronics. The collection of color micrographs includes the structures of:

  • pure Sn and other metals used as base materials of solder alloys, alloying additions or materials to be join by soldering (Ag, Bi, Cu, In, Zn)
  • binary (Sn-X), ternary (Sn-X-Y) and more complex alloys
  • interfaces of couples of dissimilar materials (Sn/X, X/Y)
  • interfaces of solder joints with Cu and Ni (Sn/Cu, Sn/Ni, Sn-X/Cu, Sn-X/Ni, Sn-X-Y/Cu, Sn-X-Y/Ni)

The effect of type and amount of alloying additions on microstructure of solder itself and consequent interface structure of solder joint formed with Cu or Ni is demonstrated in comparison with phase diagrams corresponding to either alloy or contact systems. For selected solder/substrate couples, the influence of time of interaction, size effect or the role of solid particulate reinforcement (composite solders) is also exposed.

The results of structural characterization are compared with experimental data on solderability and shear strength of solder/Cu and solder/Ni couples.

The first CD (ISBN 978-83-60965-08-5) presents the collection of the results of structural characterization by scanning electron microscopy done on polished samples of selected alloys and solder/substrate couples shown in the Atlas. Chemistry of distinguished phases has been estimated by EDS analysis

The second CD (ISBN 978-83-60965-12-2) presents the database Synt@ll containing different properties of elements of periodic table as well as criteria of binary phase diagrams used for selection of alloying additions for lead-free solder alloys. It contains also experimental data of solderability and shear strength of solder joints of selected systems.


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